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CGD Society - COVID FAQs 

Q. What is the SARS-CoV-2 virus this and is it the same as COVID-19?

A. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus strain that causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19). It is the same thing, but researchers and scientists have given it a more precise name.

Q. Are people with CGD more likely to catch COVID-19?

A. No the risks are the same as for the general population.

Q. I am in the highly vulnerable group. If I get COVID-19, am I more likely to have trouble in recovering?

A. If you are highly vulnerable then you are thought to be at risk of more severe disease, so avoidance of getting COVID-19 is the key. Therefore, following the local and national COVID guidance is so important.

Q. Is COVID-19 contagious before symptoms begin?

A.Possibly but the data about how contagious COVID-19 is remains scarce.

Q. Can people get COVID-19 twice?

A. This is not fully understood at the present time. People with normal immunity are unlikely to get the same strain twice but it is not known how much the virus can or will change or how truly different some described sub strains are in terms of immunity when it develops.  People with PID could be at risk more than once.

Q. Why are some people asymptomatic and what is different about them?

A. There is no clear answer to this at the moment, but we know that being asymptomatic is mainly age related (children more likely to be asymptomatic).

Q. Will warmer weather help kill off COVID-19?

A. There are speculations that warmer temperatures will help limit the spread of the virus, as is the case during an influenza outbreak. However we don’t know if this is the case with COVID-19. Countries such as Brazil, Peru and Indonesia are all warmer climates and have experienced significant spread of the virus and within the UK cases continued to rise in the South West and North despite unseasonably high temperatures.

Q. Would someone who has had a COVID-19 infection and recovered be immune to the virus in future?

A. They are likely to be immune to the current version (strain) of the virus. However, the current knowledge of the COVID-19 virus is limited as yet so questions remain as to how long the immunity will last, will the virus mutate to overcome the immunity, or if people who had mild or no symptoms gain the same protection. Research will help give answers to these questions.

Q. How long does it take for a person with a fully functional immune system to produce antibodies to COVID-19?

A. IgM antibodies are seen in 3-5 days from symptom onset. IgG antibodies are detectable from day 7 in some patients, but most reliably by day 21.

Q. Can people affected by immunodeficiency take part in the COVID-19 clinical trials?

A. Yes but you should seek medical advice before you do so


Testing for COVID-19

Q. How can I get tested for coronavirus?

A. This guidance tells you how to access a test We do not advise anyone to buy home testing kits.

Q. What type of tests are available.

A. You can find out the type of tests available here Users-a-guide-to-covid-19-test


Healthcare, medical appointments and ‘in emergency’ care

Q. If I get COVID-19 what should I do if I develop breathing difficulties?

A. Anyone who is concerned that they are short of breath should contact 111 or 999 for advice.

Q. How do you best look after someone with COVID-19 symptoms?

A. This is a good video guide to what measures you should take if someone in your household gets the virus:

Q. What information is it useful to have to hand in case I get ill from COVID-19?

A. We would suggest having written details of any underlying health conditions you have; a list of your medication, doses and frequency and how you take your medicines; contact details of your immunology health team; record if you have low blood pressure or body temperature and state what they are or if you have a phobia of needles or sickness: and also list the names and numbers of family members you would like us to contact in an emergency.

If you want to record more formally your information and wishes, then you could consider making an ‘advanced healthcare plan’. With anxiety levels at an all-time high this is a sensitive topic and many people might not want to talk about this or want to do one – this is entirely up to the individual.  Advance Care Planning, is a process through which individuals can plan ahead and make choices about their future. It is for anyone who wishes to plan ahead, whether they have a serious illness or not.

If you live in England or Wales, you can record your wishes for treatment and care using this form

If you live in Scotland this type of planning is called an Anticipatory Care Plan (ACP)

We were unable to find an equivalent document for Northern Ireland.

Q. In the event of a non-COVID medical emergency what should I do?

A.  The risk of developing other serious or life-threatening conditions remains unchanged during the COVID-19 pandemic and you should be fully confident that you can, and should, seek medical assistance if you are worried about yourself, your child or other relative.  Such circumstances may include having the symptoms of a heart attack, a stroke, signs of sepsis and meningitis. These are situations when the sooner medical attention is given the better the outcome will be. So, the key message is do not delay in seeking help because you are concerned about putting pressure on NHS services or frightened because of COVID-19. You should ring 999 emergency services as per normal.

Q. I’m confused about what I should do if I have other health problems that are not COVID-19 related. What do you advise?

A. If you need a GP appointment about something other than coronavirus then contact your practice, either online, by an app or by phone. You will be assessed and as far as possible you will receive advice or care online or over the phone. If a face-to-face appointment is necessary, you will be advised on what to do. Everyone is being told NOT go to your GP unless you have been advised to. This will ensure the surgery can continue to provide essential care safely.

Q. I’m in the highly vulnerable group and have had to take shielding measures in the past. What should I do if I run out of the medicines I need?

A. Contact your GP either online, by an app or by phone telling them your situation. To get the medicines to you ask friends or family to help. In some areas, volunteers are helping deliver medicines. You can also ask your pharmacy and ask them to deliver. People who deliver things to you must not come into your home and you must not leave your home to meet them.

Q. How are immunology centres maintaining good patient contact during the pandemic?

A. The NHS have recommended that immunology centres services consider having individual discussion with patients, particularly those at the highest risk of COVID-19 about the risks and benefits of attending hospital. Many centres have done this. Another recommendation is that centres should set up a generic email for patient queries with access to clinical staff to provide responses to patients.

Q. Should I attend my outpatient appointment?

A. Wherever possible patients will be offered telephone consultations. If your appointment is considered essential, then you are advised to attend (see below).

Q. How do I get to my hospital safely if I’m in the highly vulnerable group?

A. If your appointment is non-essential you should re-schedule. If you are attending for essential treatment or tests, confirm with your unit that arrangements are unchanged.  Where possible people are encouraged to use private transportation or taxis with the least exposure to others.  If travelling on public transport, maintain strict social distancing and travel at quieter times (avoid early morning in particular).

Q. I have an appointment at the hospital. What precautions are the hospitals taking to ensure I am safe from coronavirus infection?

A. All hospitals and staff are risk assessing their clinical areas and who enters them on an ongoing basis. Within the hospitals clinical areas have setup ways to minimise the risk of cross infection.

Q. I am taking an immunosuppressant medicine. Should I stop taking or reduce my dosage because I’ve heard immunosuppressants might make me more vulnerable to COVID-19?

A. You should continue your immunosuppressive medication or you risk the disorder it is controlling re-activating. You should check the advice re: Shielding – if your immunosuppressive therapy is in the list you should be minimising contact to prevent infection.  If you have read our resources and still aren’t sure, discuss with your health team.

Q. Would being able to measure my blood oxygen levels at home using a pulse oximeter be a help to check how well my lungs are working through the COVID pandemic?

A. Anyone who is concerned that they are short of breath should contact 111 or 999 for advice.  A pulse oximeter if available may give the person giving advice additional information, but not all pulse oximeters that you can buy are properly calibrated and could give false re-assurance to someone with dangerously low oxygen levels.  In general, we only advise people on home oxygen supplied with pulse oximeters by the hospital to use them.

Q. What is the difference between a face covering and a facemask?

A. The term face covering is now being used to describe non-medical facemasks. The term usually refers to face coverings that are home made.

Q. Should I wear a mask?

A. There are different rules on face coverings and masks across the UK. It all depends on the persons age and what they are doing. Here's a guide to the latest rules:,a%20mask%20difficult%2C%20then%20you%20don%27t%20have%20to.

Q. Why is the advice different in the four home nations?

A. The decisions on COVID measures are based on the science, including case numbers in the geographical area and politics. Always follow the guidance that is specific to where you live.

Q. Is there an evidence base that the government is using for extremely vulnerable people when they consider advice for the highly vulnerable?

A. The advice is given by SAGE the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies. The evidence base for previous decisions is shared online and some for COVID is now available, but the CGD Society is not party to anything other than that in the public domain.

Q. How does the COVID-19 virus disguise itself to enter human cells undetected?

A. COVID-19 has a large number of spikes sticking out on its surface, which it uses to attach to and enter cells in the human body. These spikes are coated in sugars, known as glycans, which disguise their viral proteins and help them invade the body’s immune system. The entry receptor for COVID-19 is known as Angiotensin-Coverting- Enzyme (ACE-2).

Q. When people develop antibodies to COVID-19 are there certain parts of the virus that are ‘hot spots’ for antibodies to bind to?

A. SARS-COV2 has spike (S), membrane (M), nucleocapsid (N) and envelope (E) proteins. Of these the majority of antibodies following natural infection appear to be targeted against the S or N antigens and it is responses to S or N that are measured in the antibody tests that the government is rolling out.

Q. Is there a link between COVID susceptibility and someone’s blood type?

A. There are reports suggesting certain blood groups may increase susceptibility, but they are preliminary and it is not clear that bias has been removed to exclude the overall frequency of those blood groups in the populations at risk.

Q. How do I access the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE) reports?

A. These can be found at

Q. How is the NHS building a picture of how the COVID-19 outbreak is affecting people and how it is spreading?

A. The government has launched a coronavirus status checker that will help the NHS coordinate its response and build up additional data on the COVID-19 outbreak.

NHS asks people to share their coronavirus symptoms to help others.  Please encourage friends and family to take part.

Q. Is it possible to predict the trajectory of the virus in the UK?

A. This is difficult to do because a lack of testing results in a lack of understanding of its spread and we don’t know what proportion of the population is asymptomatic and could be ‘spreaders’. As yet we don’t know if, and for how long, immunity lasts in people who have recovered from COVID. All these gaps in knowledge underline how important it is for people to adhere to the government’s guidelines on social distancing and COVID-19 health measures.


Q. What is a cytokine storm and how is it involved in COVID-19?

A. Cytokines are a group of chemicals secreted by cells, which organise the immune, and inflammatory response by which we defend ourselves against infection. They include interleukins, interferons, and growth factors. A cytokine storm is when the immune system goes into overdrive and large amounts of cytokines are produced which drive immune cells to attack the bodies’ own tissues. In serious cases of COVID it can cause leakage of blood vessels and the lungs may fill up with fluid.

You can read more at:

Q. Is it possible to stop the cytokine storm?

A. We now know that Dexamethasone, a steroid, is effective and reduces the inflammation and saves lives. Other treatments are being trialled also targeting cytokine storm, but we do not yet know if they are effective.

Q. What do we know about whether people who are seriously ill with COVID are primarily suffering from the virus or whether it’s bacterial infections that are exploiting the opening that the virus provides? Is there a link to the research?

A. Many of the patients do have evidence of secondary bacterial infection, this is routinely tested for in admissions and most people are pre-emptively started on antibiotics if admitted into hospital. COVID itself does however cause direct inflammation in lungs and through cytokine storm can activate the immune system causing multi-organ damage. It was recognized quite early on that the infection also increases blood clotting and some of the damage to organs (including the lungs and kidneys) can be caused by blood clots.  The research changes so rapidly we would not advocate posting that information here.

Q. What do we know about the after effects of having had COVID-19?

A. There are long-term follow-up studies that indicate that some people who have had COVID are left struggling with symptoms including lasting fatigue, persistent pain and breathlessness for months. This is referred to as long COVID. Read more at The NHS has set up a website to specifically address the needs of those affected – see

Q. I have just heard about something called multisystem inflammatory syndrome. What are the symptoms and are children with a primary immunodeficiency, such as CGD more vulnerable?

A. Children with a primary immunodeficiency are not more likely to develop the COVID inflammatory syndrome as far as we currently know. Before COVID the inflammatory syndrome presentation would be called Kawasaki’s or atypical Kawasaki’s. This is a vasculitis (blood vessel inflammation) of childhood.  The features are prolonged fever (>5 days), rash affecting eyes and skin, involvement of the hands and knees (swelling) and in a small percentage heart involvement with expansion of the blood vessels supplying the heart.  Diagnosis during COVID is difficult because Coronavirus also causes fever as one of its typical features and it often lasts 5 days or more.  The cause of Kawasaki’s is not known, but often is thought to be triggered by infection.  It seems likely that the currently described inflammatory syndrome is a form of Kawasaki’s in individuals who would always be susceptible to develop Kawasaki’s and is triggered by COVID.  


Treatments for COVID-19

Q. I’ve heard of a breakthrough with treating COVID-19 with a low dose steroid called dexamethasone? What were the results?

A. As part of the RECOVERY trial a total of 2,104 patients were chosen at random to receive 6mg of dexamethasone once a day (either by mouth or by intravenous injection) for 10 days. Their outcomes were compared with 4,321 patients chosen at random to continue with normal care alone. Without the drug, death rates at 28 days were highest in those who needed to be put on a ventilator (41%), intermediate in those who required oxygen only (25%), and lowest among those whose lungs were working sufficiently well (13%). Dexamethasone reduced deaths by one-

third in ventilated patients and by one-fifth in other patients receiving oxygen only. There was no benefit among those patients who did not need help to breathe.


Q. I have heard that interferon beta is being trialled as a treatment for COVID-19. What is the status of these trials?

A. Testing the use of interferon beta is part of the ACCORD platform/study (Accelerating Covid Research and Development) study.  The aim of the ACCORD study is to fund and support proof of concept trials of drugs/treatments/tests/equipment and if they show promise to feed them into larger trials such as RECOVERY (see the FAQ above). There are centres across the UK who are administering Interferons to patients as part of the ACCORD and other trials to see if that may provide benefit.​  Read more at

Q. How does Remdesivir work?

A. Remdesivir is an anti-viral drug. It works by interfering with the replication of the virus. Based on the research to-date, for critically ill COVID-19 patients, remdesivir is unlikely to change survival or the need for mechanical ventilation. Read more at

Q. What is the current view on the use of hydroxychloroquine to treat COVID-19?

A. Following a large randomised controlled trial it has now been concluded that there is no beneficial effect of hydroxychloroquine in patients hospitalised with COVID-19. See the statement from the RECOVERY project

Q. If hydroxychloroquine doesn’t help people hospitalised with COVID-19, is it any use to as a prophylactic medicine?

A. There appears to be no benefit at all from hydroxychloroquine.

Q. Can taking prophylactic antibiotics help avoid a person getting infected by COVID-19?

A. It is more likely that antibiotics prevent secondary bacterial infection in someone who has COVID than preventing COVID altogether. This is the most likely explanation for benefit observed in some patients given e.g. Azithromycin.

Q. I have heard that ventilators are not the best form of treatment. Is this true?

A. This is true in so far as prevention is better than cure.  If people follow social distancing and avoid the virus that is the best treatment. If we find there is a low toxicity drug that can treat COVID-19 from the earliest stage and prevent people getting sick, that is also likely to be a better approach.  At present unfortunately significant proportion of patients who are unwell enough to need to go to hospital will have such poor oxygenation of their blood that ventilation, either non-invasive or invasive is needed.  At present if that happens sadly up to 50% of those patients die.  For the 50% that survive, that would not be possible without mechanical ventilatory support.

Q. Should I take Vitamin D?

A. You can take a vitamin D supplement, but the dosage should be within Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) guidelines.

Q. Should I be taking any vitamin supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic?

A. Keeping a healthy well-balanced diet with plenty of fruit and vegetables is good practice and should provide all the vitamins you need. There is no evidence that taking vitamins will protect people from coronavirus.

Q. How do I find out what clinical trials for the treatments of COVID-19 are taking place?

A. There are several sources of good information on clinical trials that we recommend:

Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy (RECOVERY). Based at Oxford University this project has recruited over 11,500 patients in clinical trials to date.

It has a section with information for people who might want to take part in the studies.

Please note that ‘patients may only be included in this study if they have COVID-19 confirmed by a laboratory test for coronavirus (or considered likely by their doctors), and are in hospital. Patients will not be included if the attending doctor thinks there is a particular reason why none of the study treatments are suitable’.

European Commission: Coronavirus research and innovation a database of privately and publicly funded clinical studies around the world

Q. I have read about monoclonal antibody treatments for COVID-19. What are these?

A. Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies that have a single specificity. They recognise and bind to a specific part of a molecule. They can be genetically engineered and produced in large amounts.

When they are used in medications the drug name usually ends in ‘mab’.

Researchers are looking to neutralise the COVID-19 virus by using monoclonal antibody cocktails to target specific parts of the virus. In principle, antibodies could be given to patients in the early stage of COVID-19 to reduce the level of virus and protect against severe disease.  First, research must identify which antibodies in plasma from people who have recovered from COVID have the most anti-viral potential. Then monoclonal antibodies are generated which mimic that property are developed. These are then tested in the laboratory and successful candidates tested in animal models before they enter patient clinical trials.  A publication in the journal Science has recently described such an approach

The drug Tocilizumab, which is a monoclonal antibody against the cytokine interleukin-6, which is over produced during the cytokine storm seen in serious COVID cases, is being tested in clinical trials.

Q. Are people investigating using a combination of drugs to treat COVID-19?

A. There are currently hundreds, if not thousands, of trials worldwide and some of these include combination therapy.

Q. What is convalescent plasma and how might it help people?

A. Convalescent plasma is the plasma obtained from donors who have recently recovered from COVID-19. For now, it is at the trial phase for use on COVID patients and there is no firm timeline as yet for use for other vulnerable groups.

Q. What is the difference between convalescent plasma and hyperimmune immunoglobulin?

A. The viral inactivation in convalescent plasma is not as extensive as for hyperimmune immunoglobulin which is fractionated with 2-3 antiviral steps, like intravenous immunoglobulin.  Hyperimmune immunoglobulins are a type of plasma derived medicinal products manufactured in the same way as regular immunoglobulin (IG) therapies, but from the plasma of donors who have developed high titres of specific antibodies. Hyperimmune immunoglobulins therefore contain much higher titres of specific antibodies than regular IG therapies and are entirely different products.  In the case of COVID-19 there is currently no hyperimmune immunoglobulin available. Several companies are working on the development of such therapies. The production process would involve using the plasma of many donors who have recovered from COVID-19 and therefore have high titres of COVID-19 antibodies. Once collected, this plasma would then be transported to manufacturing facilities where it will be fractionated into the final product in a similar fashion as regular immunoglobulin therapies. This is a long production process, often lasting between 7-10 months. The clinical trials for this treatment will start at the earliest in July 2020.

Q. What is happening with the convalescent plasma trials to treat COVID-19?

A. There are two trials ongoing in the UK: As part of the REMAP-CAP trial convalescent plasma treatment will be for people who have been in intensive care for less than 48 hours and have tested positive for COVID-19. Around 1,000 people are planned to take part in the trial and will receive plasma as part of their treatment. They will have two transfusions over two days and will monitored for 21 days to see how effective this is. The trial has recently been opened for recruitment to the convalescent plasma and currently new hospitals are being set up to participate throughout the country.

In the RECOVERY trial, the effectiveness of convalescent plasma will be assessed for treating patients with COVID-19 who are in hospital, but not in intensive care.  Around 2,500 people will receive plasma as part of the trial. Like the REMAP-CAP trial, they will receive two doses over two days. You can catch up on the trials at

Q. How long would a person be protected against COVID-19 by using convalescent plasma?

A. Although there are some promising results, convalescent plasma has not yet been shown to be safe and effective as a treatment for COVID-19. Therefore, it is important to study the safety and efficacy of COVID-19 convalescent plasma in clinical trials. There is not yet enough validated data on the protection given by convalescent plasma, but a person receiving it should not be protected by antibodies for more than about 28 days.

Q. Are companies developing an anti-COVID-19 plasma product?

A. The companies Biotest, BPL, LFB, and Octapharma have joined an alliance formed by CSL Behring and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited to develop a potential plasma-derived therapy for treating COVID-19. The alliance will begin immediately with the investigational development of one, unbranded anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal hyperimmune immunoglobulin medicine with the potential to treat individuals with serious complications from COVID-19.

 Q. If enough people recover from COVID-19 could their antibodies be used to help people with serious COVID-19 infections?

A. Biotest, BPL, LFB, and Octapharma have joined an alliance formed by CSL Behring and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited to develop a potential plasma-derived therapy for treating COVID-19. The alliance has already started with the investigational development of one, unbranded anti-SARS-CoV-2 polyclonal hyperimmune immunoglobulin medicine with the potential to treat individuals with serious complications from COVID-19. In the press release they say ’Developing a hyperimmune will require plasma donation from many individuals who have fully recovered from COVID-19, and whose blood contains antibodies that can fight the novel coronavirus. Once collected, the “convalescent” plasma would then be transported to manufacturing facilities where it undergoes proprietary processing, including effective virus inactivation and removal processes, and then is purified into the product.’

We will keep you updated on progress when we have more concrete news.

Q. What is the RECOVERY project?

A. RECOVERY project stands for Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy (RECOVERY). It is a UK project to help identify the best treatments for COVID-19 through large randomised controlled trials. Treatments that are being looked at include: Hydroxychloroquine; Azithromycin; Kaletra and Tocilizumab. You can read more about the RECOVERY programme at


Research about the impact of COVID-19

Q. What research studies are being done on the impact of COVID-19 on the PID community?

A. PID UK is helping on this project, in collaboration with the UKPIN and the CGD Society and are encouraging people with PID to register for this APP COVID-19/. We are asking that everybody who registers to use the App to provide details of their name and postcode to their immunology teams or PID UK, so that the relevant information can be pulled together at the later date.  So please do take part and get in touch with PID UK to tell them you are registered

Further information about the app can be found on following this link:

Q. What is the COVIDENCE research study?

A. The COVIDENCE UK national research study is designed to find out whether people with conditions such as CGD may be at increased risk of coronavirus disease. The researchers are looking to recruit a broad mix of people from all over the UK, including those who have NOT had coronavirus infection, and those who HAVE already had proven or suspected coronavirus infection. The study will involve filling in an on-line questionnaire to collect information about your lifestyle, diet, longstanding conditions and prescribed treatment. Completion takes 30-60 minutes. After that, you will be contacted monthly via email to report possible symptoms of coronavirus disease. The data you provide will be linked to your medical records, to allow the study team to investigate whether coronavirus infection may affect long-term health.  It is being run by researchers from Barts and The London Medical School and other universities in London, Edinburgh, Swansea and Belfast. You must be aged 16 years or older to take part.

Q. Why is this research important?

A. Information is key in understanding of the spread of infection and its impact on the PID community.  Please do get involved as this will help inform us on the impact of COVID and how better strategies for dealing with the pandemic might be developed.  

Q. I have signed up for the COVID- 19 PID APP tracker study but it doesn’t ask questions specifically relating to PID. Why is that and does it matter?

A. The APP we are encouraging the community to get involved with is generic and not PID specific. Making the APP PID specific would have taken time and resources and time is pressing to collect the data. We are asking those that take part to inform their treatment centre or PID UK about their involvement by sending us details of their name, email address and postal code. This will enable cross-correlation of data submitted with the data held in the UK PIN registry so that PID relevant data can be analysed.

Q. Is the COVID-APP tracker only for people who live in England?

A. No people in all four nations can take part.

Q. How will the findings of COVID-19 research in the PID community be compared to that of the general population who are following strict social distancing?

A. The general population data will act as a control group. The PID community data will show how effective social distancing is at preventing transmission in this group and will allow follow-up on the outcome of infection.



Q. I am on statutory sickness pay (SSP; £95.85/week) and just cannot get by on this. What other benefits can I claim?

A. This website gives details of the benefits you may be entitled to whilst claiming SSP These include Personal Independence Payment (PIP) and Employment Support Allowance (ESA). The CGD Society can send you guides as to how to fill out the PIP and ESA forms. Just get in touch with us at

Q. I must go to hospital for my treatment. Is there any scheme whereby I can claim back the cost of travel?

A. The Healthcare Travel Costs Scheme (HTCS) scheme may help you. Details can be found at . However, you do need to meet the exact criteria to qualify but if you are already on some sort of benefit then this is worth applying for.

Q. How do I get help with health costs for prescriptions etc?

A. Prescription charges only apply in England. If you are on any type of benefit you may qualify for help. Find out more at

Q. I have been furloughed from my work. What does this mean and what are my rights?

A. To furlough means to “lay off or suspend temporarily”, usually without pay. It is not a recognised term in UK employment law, although it is commonly used in the USA. Government guidance says someone is furloughed if they remain employed but are not undertaking work.

The CGD Society is not a legal expert on the furlough scheme but this link provides useful information on various scenarios  See also this website which looks at this issue from the employer perspective

Q. What is the RECOVERY project?

A. RECOVERY project stands for Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy (RECOVERY). It is a UK project to help identify the best treatments for COVID-19 through large randomised controlled trials. Treatments that are being looked at include: Hydroxychloroquine; Azithromycin; Kaletra and Tocilizumab. You can read more about the RECOVERY programme at


Page updated 15th July 2021